F80 War Thunder

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F-82E Twin Mustang in Alaskan Air Command camouflage from 1952m created by RMK18 Download Here

The Second World War marked the pinnacle of the propeller driven gun slinger; piston engine fighters which fought each other in varied skies across many theatres all over the globe. This golden era of air-to-air combat still, to this day, causes debates to rage over which aircraft was the best piston engine fighter of the war. The North American P-51 Mustang is without a shadow of a doubt one of the main contenders to that title; a superlative aircraft which combined speed, handling and firepower with incredible range. This begs the question: given one of the most iconic and successful fighter aircraft of all time, known for its deadly beauty, why would anybody want to do this to it?

I've got merch now: WAR THUNDER FOR FREE AND GET 50GE FOR FREE: http://warthunder.com/en/registrati. I am really confused as to why they He 162 and Me 262 A-1/U4 are at 6.3. Can anyone explain why? The US get jets at 7.0, Russians at 6.7, British at 7.0, ♥♥♥♥ at 6.7, China at 8.0 (which makes more sense due to lack of vehicles in the tree), Italy at 7.3, French at 7.7, and Swedish at 6.7. I also know that the Russians get the Yak-15P at 6.3, but you have to purchase the Yak-15 at 6.7. The F-82s had been pressed into interceptor service in 1949 after the Soviet Union displayed the Tupolev Tu-4 strategic bomber, a reversed-engineered version of the B-29 Superfortress, some of which had landed and were impounded in the Soviet Far East during World War II. The F-82Fs proved to be an excellent day/night all-weather interceptor, with long range, but it lacked any logistics support which resulted in a chronic shortage of parts. Prior to the Falklands War the cost of the Type 23 frigates was estimated at £75 million each (September 1980 prices) Changes following the experiences in the Falklands, including improved damage control and fire precautions, led to an increased cost estimated at £110 million (1984–85 prices) By 2001, the Ministry of Defence said the cost. Grotti is an Italian luxury land and sea vehicle manufacturer featured in the Grand Theft Auto series. 1 Overview 2 Vehicles 2.1 HD Universe 3 Dealership Locations 3.1 Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas 3.2 Grand Theft Auto IV + Episodes from Liberty City 3.3 Grand Theft Auto V 4 Image Gallery 5 Trivia 5.1 General 5.2 Grand Theft Auto V 6 See Also 7 Navigation The company is based on Italian luxury.

North American XP-82 Twin Mustang 44-83887
on test flight over Sierras, 1945.

The P-51’s origins were not nearly as impressive as when the aircraft hit its prime in the last two years of the war. Of all of this excellent fighter’s qualities, perhaps its most loved – certainly by American bomber crews – was its long range. With the B-29 Superfortress pushing the bar even further with a range well in excess of the B-17 and B-24, even the mighty Mustang and the P-38 no longer had the legs for such long range missions and a new escort fighter was needed. The fine minds at North American Aircraft were tasked with the conception of an ultra-long range escort fighter.

A twin fuselage design – whilst relatively unconventional – was certainly not unheard of at the time and presented a number of advantages for the proposed task in hand. With two fuselages, a greater quantity of fuel could be carried in addition to the wing tanks where, again, the addition of a central joining wing in between the two fuselages presented the opportunity for more fuel still. With the wings strengthened for hard points, external drop tanks were also an option. With the design based heavily on the P-51, the existing fuselage was further modified by lengthening it behind the cockpit to allow for larger fuel tanks.

North American Aircraft now had a sensitive balancing act to complete. On the one hand, the aircraft needed to be as lightweight as possible not only for a favourable thrust to weight ratio for range, but also for performance. On the other, great consideration was required for the complexities of a multi engine aircraft with a less than conventional make up. How would the aircraft handle in the event of a single, or for that matter double engine failure? What configuration was best for harnessing the power of the two engines – propellers in unison, rotating outward from each other or inward?

27th FW NA F-82E Twin Mustangs,
along with a Boeing B-29 Superfortress
at Kearney AFB, Nebraska.

Once this question was answered, what tail configuration would give the best control authority? The question of weight and centre of gravity calculations also came into play with crew composition, but after due consideration it was decided that a cockpit with full flying controls would be retained in both fuselages to allow two pilots to alternate control and share the workload on long escort missions.

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After trial and error and some teething problems along the way, the prototype XP-82 first flew in June 1945. As well as having an incredible range and endurance, the P-82 also boasted a top speed in excess of 470 mph.

The P-82, whilst produced during the final stages of the war, did not see active service. It did, however, make headlines in February 1947 with a record breaking flight from Hawaii to New York – a distance of some 5000 miles – which was flown without refueling. It remains to this day the longest ever flight carried out by a piston engine fighter, and the fastest flight over such a distance by any piston engine aircraft. The Twin Mustang followed suit with other American fighters in being redesignated in 1948 as the F-82, when ‘Pursuit’ was changed to ‘Fighter’. Performance also saw a reduction when, post-war, the cost of the license for the British designed Merlin engines was increased, and Allison V-1710 engines were fitted instead.

F80 War Thunder Free

USAF operational F-82 Twin Mustang,
F-82F AF Ser. No. 46-0415,
on the ramp at Ladd AFB, May 1953.

Even with war against Germany and Japan over, a new conflict would dominate US foreign policy – the Cold War against the Soviet Union and its allies. The F-82 was now seen as a strategic asset; an escort fighter for potential bombing sorties to the heart of the Soviet Union itself. However, with Soviet jet fighters entering service it soon became apparent that piston engined aircraft stood little chance against the new generation of combat aircraft, be it propeller driven bombers or the piston fighters which were tasked to defend them.

However, other roles were found for the Twin Mustang. With a multi-crew configuration and the capacity to carry significant weight, the F-82 proved to be a capable platform to be radar fitted and utilized in the night fighter role. It was night fighter F-82Gs of the 68th Fighter Squadron which, in the early hours of June 25th 1950, carried out the first aerial combat sorties of the Korean War. Another first occurred on June 27th when, during an escort mission to C-54 transport aircraft, F-82s of the 68th and 339th Fighter Squadrons shot down a Yak-11 and two La-7s. In addition to escort and night interceptor duties, the F-82 was also successfully used in the ground attack role during the conflict.

However, despite a brave performance the days of the Twin Mustang were numbered. A non conventional piston engine fighter had little place in the new world of the jet aircraft, and by only 1953 the last F-82 had been phased out of service. Currently only five known airframes are known to have survived out of some 270 aircraft produced. Attempts are being made to restore two to flying condition.

With a coming update, we will inculde the decal of the 68th Fighter Interceptor Squadron to War Thunder:

F80 War Thunder Skin

Decal by Jej 'CharlieFoxtrot' Ortiz

About The Author

Mark Barber, War Thunder Historical Consultant

Mark Barber is a pilot in the British Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm. His first book was published by Osprey Publishing in 2008; subsequently, he has written several more titles for Osprey and has also published articles for several magazines, including the UK's top selling aviation magazine 'FlyPast'. His main areas of interest are British Naval Aviation in the First and Second World Wars and RAF Fighter Command in the Second World War. He currently works with Gaijin Entertainment as a Historical Consultant, helping to run the Historical Section of the War Thunder forums and heading up the Ace of the Month series.

Nikon F
Lens mountNikon F-mount
Flashnon-ISO hot shoe, or PC socket for off-camera flash

The Nikon Fcamera, introduced in April 1959,[1] was Nikon's first SLR camera.[2] It was one of the most advanced cameras of its day. Although many of the concepts had already been introduced elsewhere, it was revolutionary in that it was the first to combine them all in one camera.[3] It was produced until October 1973 and was replaced by the Nikon F2. Aspects of its design remain in all of Nikon's subsequent SLR cameras, through the current Nikon F6 film and Nikon D5 digital models (which still share its Nikon F-mount for lenses). The 'F' in Nikon F was selected from the term 're-f-lex', since the pronunciation of the first letter 'R' is not available in many Asian languages.[4] That tradition was carried all the way through their top line of Nikon cameras until the introduction of the Nikon D1 (digital) cameras decades later.

Specially modified Nikon F cameras were used in space in the early 1970s aboard the Skylab space station.[5]


Nikon F professional SLR camera with eyelevel prism and early NIKKOR-S Auto 1:1,4 f=5,8cm (1959)

The Nikon F was the first 35 mm SLR system to be widely adopted by professional photographers, especially photojournalists covering the Vietnam War, as well as for use by NASA astronauts.[6]

It was originally priced at US$186 with 5 cm f/2 lens; in November 1963 the US price was $233 for the body with a standard prism plus $90 for a 5 cm f/2 lens or $155 for a 5 cm f/1.4.

A combination of design elements made the Nikon F successful. It had interchangeable prisms and focusing screens; the camera had a depth-of-field preview button; the mirror had lock-up capability; it had a large bayonet mount and a large lens release button; a single-stroke ratcheted film advance lever; a titanium-foil focal plane shutter; various types of flash synchronization; a rapid rewind lever; a fully removable back. It was well-made, durable, and adhered closely to the successful design scheme of the Nikon rangefinder cameras. The camera was the first to use the F-mount bayonet lens mount system, which is still used as of 2021. Lead designer of the Nikon F was Yusaku Kamekura, the man behind the 1967 Summer Olympics logo.[7]

Nikon's Photomic FTn camera and finder
Apollo 15 (NASA) Nikon F with FTn Photomic prism and motor drive, usable for extra-vehicular activity. The first 35 mmSLR in lunar orbit.
Foreground: Nikon F with eyelevel prism; Nikon F with FTn Photomic prism; Nikon F with FTn Photomic prism and F36 motor drive

The Nikon F evolved from a rangefinder camera, the Nikon SP. The prototype model, in particular, was an SP with a mirror box, pentaprism and larger lens mount grafted on.[8]

The F was a modular system camera, with various assemblies such as viewfinders, focusing screens, and motor drives for 36-exposure and 250-exposure film cassettes. Third parties manufactured other film backs, such as two Speed Magny film backs—one using Polaroid 100 (later 600) type pack films, and another designed for 4x5 film accessories including Polaroid's own 4x5 instant film back. Each of these assemblies could be fitted and removed, allowing the camera to adapt to almost any task. The F36 motor drive, one of the first popular motor drives for SLR cameras, was capable of firing up to 4 frames per second with the mirror locked up or 3 frames per second with full reflex viewing maintained.

The Nikon F had a wide range of lenses, covering 21 mm to 1000 mm focal length by 1962. Nikon was among the first companies to manufacture Catadioptric system lens designs, combining mirrors and lenses to make more-compact lenses with longer focal lengths.

The Nikon F revolutionized the photographic market, stealing the thunder of German manufacturers Leica and Zeiss. The F had a reputation for being extremely resilient to damage or mechanical failure, becoming known as 'the hockey puck.'

In some markets, the camera was marketed as a 'Nikkor F' due to trademark conflicts. In Germany, 'Nikon' was seen as too similar to the Zeiss Ikon camera line. Nikkor F cameras have become collector's items.

Example of a Nikon Photomic FTn image – Timothy Leary, family, and band (1969).

The first Nikon F Photomic viewfinder, delivered since 1962,[9] had an independent photocell. Then Nikon introduced the Photomic T (superseded by the Photomic Tn), which featured through-the-lens (TTL) metering. The final metering prism for the Nikon F, the Photomic FTn,[10] introduced in 1968, provided 60% center-weighted TTL, which became the standard metering pattern for Nikon cameras for decades afterwards. Additional viewfinders included a waist-level viewer, a 6 power magnifying finder, and an 'action finder' with a larger viewable area through which one could see the entire frame while wearing goggles and/or a helmet.

The Nikon F was succeeded in 1972 by the Nikon F2 series after a production total of 862,600 bodies. Subsequent 'single-digit' F cameras continued as the top of Nikon's professional line of film SLRs, through the Nikon F6 introduced in 2004.[11] Since the introduction of the digital Nikon D1 in 1999, Nikon has continued to reserve single-digit model numbers for top-of-the-line cameras.



  • High capacity back for 30 feet (10 metres) of bulk film with the F250 motor drive

  • F250 motor drive, as mounted (rear view)

  • Nikon FTN with interchangeable photomic TTL metering prism

  • A Nikon F body with detached pentaprism viewfinder, showing the focusing screen

  • The first 35mm perspective control lens was introduced in 1961 for the Nikon F

  • the Nikon F bayonet mount

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See also[edit]


  1. ^Nikon F Mir
  2. ^https://expertphotography.com/10-must-have-film-cameras/
  3. ^Lothrop & Schneider, 'The SLR Saga (part 2),' p 51. 'in 1959, Nikon announced what was undoubtedly the most important SLR of its era–the legendary Nikon F. Although it did not embody any technological breakthroughs, it is generally credited as the cornerstone of the world's first professional caliber 35mm SLR system.'
  4. ^[imaging.nikon.com/history/chronicle/history-f/ Debut of Nikon F - Design philosophy of single-lens reflex camera Nikon F system], nikon.com, retrieved 1 March 2018
  5. ^'Nikon – Imaging Products – Legendary Nikons / Vol. 12. Special titanium Nikon cameras and NASA cameras'.
  6. ^Camera Systems Carried on Board the Command and Service Module (CSM) on Apollo Lunar Missions
  7. ^'伝説の名機ニコンFの特徴・おすすめモデルを一挙紹介!,' website=sunrise-camera.net access-date=2020-11-24 }}
  8. ^'The Nikon,' by Frank MechelhoffArchived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^Nikon F - Nikon F Metering Prisms and MetersArchived 2012-10-18 at the Wayback Machine Mir
  10. ^The Nikon FTN finderArchived 2012-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^'仙台ニコン 会社紹介 あゆみ'. www.sendai-nikon.com. Retrieved 2016-08-27.

Further reading[edit]

  • Comon, P. (1996): Magic Lantern Guides Classic Series: Nikon Classic Cameras Vol. 1 for F, Nikkormat Series, Fe, Fe2nd Fa (Nikon Classic Cameras), Magic Lantern Guides (ISBN1-883403-31-6)
  • Koch, U.: Nikon F, Coeln, Peter (England) (ISBN3-9501443-0-7)
  • Koch, U. (2003): Nikon F. The Camera, Lindemanns (ISBN3-9501443-1-5)
  • Koch, U. (2003): Nikon F. The Lenses, Lindemanns (ISBN3-9501443-2-3)
  • Koch, U. (2004): Nikon F. The Accessories, Lindemanns (ISBN3-9501443-3-1)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nikon F.
  • The Legend: Nikon F by luis triguez
  • Comprehensive Nikon F website by Michael Liu
  • Nikon F & F2 by Karen Nakamura
  • A Nikon F Photomic TN Picture Gallery by Mårten Larsson
Nikonfilm SLR timeline
Classend of 1950s1960s1970s1980s1990s2000s2010searly 2020s
High-endF-501 (N2020)F90 (N90)F90X (N90s)F100
F-801 (N8008)F-801s (N8008s)F80 (N80)
Mid-rangeFTFTnFT2FT3F-601 (N6006)F70 (N70)F75 (N75)
Nikkorex F / Nikkor JELEL2FAF-601M (N6000)FE10
Pronea S
Zoom 35FMFM2Pronea 600i/6iFM3A
3535 II(Nikon) Auto 35FM10
Entry-levelEMFGF-301 (N2000)F-401s (N4004s)F50 (N50)F65 (N65)
FG-20F-401 (N4004)F-401x (N5005)F60 (N60)F55 (N55)

AutofocusAPS-formatNikkorex with leaf shutterNikomat/NikkormatManual Focus with electronic features (A mode)

See also:Nikon DSLR cameras

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