Asu 57 War Thunder

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USA tank destroyers
Early projects M3 GMC ·M8 HMC ·M8A1
Based on M4 M10 GMC ·M36 GMC
M18 M18 GMC ·M18 'Black Cat' ·Super Hellcat
T95 T28 ·T95
T55E1
China ▃LVT(A)(4) ZIS-2
Post-war M50 ·M56 ·T114 ·M901 ·ADATS ·M1128
War thunder store
Germany tank destroyers
Based on Pz.38(t) Marder III ·Marder III H ·Jagdpanzer 38(t)
Based on Pz.I Panzerjäger I
Based on Pz.II 15cm sIG 33 B Sfl
Based on Pz.III StuG III A ·StuG III F ·StuG III G ·StuH 42 G
Based on Pz.IV Jagdpanzer IV ·Panzer IV/70(V) ·Panzer IV/70(A) ·Brummbär ·Dicker Max ·Nashorn
Based on Pz.V Jagdpanther ·Bfw. Jagdpanther
Based on Pz.VI Sturer Emil ·Ferdinand ·Jagdtiger
JPz 4-5 ·Waffenträger ·VFW ·VT1-2 ·JaPz.K A2
Wheeled/Half-track Sd.Kfz.251/10 ·8,8 cm Flak 37 Sfl. ·Sd.Kfz.234/3 ·Sd.Kfz.234/4 ·Class 3 (P)
Rocket/Missile 15 cm Pz.W.42 ·RakJPz 2 ·RakJPz 2 (HOT)

USSR tank destroyers
Light SU-5-1 ·ZiS-30 ·SU-57 ·SU-57B ·SU-76D ·SU-76M ·SU-76M (5th Gv.Kav.Corps) ·YaG-10 (29-K) ·SU-85A ·Khrizantema-S
Medium SU-122 ·SU-85 ·SU-85M ·SU-100 ·SU-100P ·SU-122P ·SU-122-54 ·IT-1 ·Shturm-S
Heavy SU-100Y ·ISU-122 ·ISU-122S ·SU-152 ·ISU-152 ·Object 268 ·Object 120
Rocket BM-8-24 ·BM-13N
Airborne ASU-57 ·ASU-85

Britain tank destroyers
Based on cruiser tanks QF 3.7 Ram
Based on infantry tanks Gun Carrier (3-in) ·Archer
M10 Achilles Achilles ·Achilles (65 Rg.)
End war Avenger ·Tortoise
Post-war Charioteer Mk VII ·FV4005 ·Conway ·Rooikat 105 ·Rooikat MTTD
ATGM Swingfire ·Striker ·ZT3A2 ·ADATS (M113)

Japan tank destroyers
Ji-Ro Ji-Ro
Based on Chi-Ha Ho-Ni I ·Ho-Ni III ·Ho-Ro ·Chi-Ha LG
Based on Ho-Ki Na-To
Ho-Ri Ho-Ri Prototype ·Ho-Ri Production
Post-war Type 60 SPRG (C) ·Type 60 ATM ·Type 75 MLRS ·Type 75 SPH ·Type 16

China tank destroyers
PTZ89
American ␗M8 HMC ·␗LVT(A)(4) (ZiS-2) ·␗M10 ·␗M18 ·␗M36 ·␗M113A1 (TOW) ·CM25
Soviet ␗SU-76M ·␗ISU-152 ·␗ISU-122 ·␗SU-100

Italy tank destroyers
M41 75/18 M41 ·75/32 M41 ·90/53 M41M
M42 75/34 M42
M43 105/25 M43 ·M43 'G.C.Leoncello' ·75/34 M43 ·75/46 M43
Wheeled Breda 501
Other L3/33 CC ·47/32 L40
Post-War Centauro ·Centauro ROMOR ·Centauro MGS
USA ▄M18 ·M36B1 ·M113A1 (TOW)
Germany ▄StuG III G

France tank destroyers
AMR.35 ZT3 ·SAu 40 ·Lorraine 37L ·ARL-44 ·CA Lorraine ·Lorraine 155 Mle.50 ·AMX-50 Foch ·SK-105A2
USA ▄M10 GMC

Sweden tank destroyers
Spj fm/43-44 ·Ikv 72 ·Ikv 73 ·Ikv 103 ·Pvkv II ·Pvkv m/43 (1946) ·Pvkv m/43 (1963) ·Pvrbv 551
SAV 20.12.48 ·Sav m/43 (1944) ·Sav m/43 (1946) ·U-SH 405 ·UDES 33

Media

German tank destroyers - War Thunder Official Channel
Soviet SPGs - War Thunder Official Channel
Best tank destroyers - War Thunder Official Channel

Pages in category 'Tank destroyers'

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this publication is to provide comprehensive data on the climate of Phoenix. It is hoped that these data will help residents, visitors, prospective residents, agriculturalists, engineers, community planners, Chambers of Commerce, the movie industry, etc., make more skillful decisions affecting their lives, their plans for the future, and hence the whole economy of the area. Data in this revision are for the period January 1, 1896 through December 31, 1995. This marks 100 years of continuous weather records for Phoenix.

The assistance given by Mr. Robert S. Ingram, former Meteorologist in Charge, National Weather Service Office, Phoenix, Arizona, Mr. Paul C. Kangieser, former NOAA Climatologist for Arizona, and other staff members is gratefully acknowledged. The writer is gratefully indebted to Mr. Harold C. Bulk, former Assistant State Climatologist, Office of Climatology, Arizona State University, for his article, “An Overview of Phoenix Climate”. Ms. Brazel and Mr. Balling’s research paper, “The Myth of Increasing Moisture Levels in Phoenix”, is also included in this Technical Memorandum.

I. GENERAL GEOGRAPHICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY

Phoenix is located in about the center of the Salt River Valley, a broad, oval-shaped, nearly flat plain. The Salt River runs from east to west through the valley, but, owing to impounding dams upstream, it is usually dry. The climate is of a desert type with low annual rainfall and low relative humidity. Daytime temperatures are high throughout the summer months. The winters are mild. Nighttime temperatures frequently drop below freezing during the three coldest months, but the afternoons are usually sunny and warm.

At an elevation of about 1100 feet, the station is in a level or gently sloping valley running east and west. The Salt River Mountains, or South Mountains as they are commonly called, are located 6 miles to the south and rise to 2600 feet MSL. The Phoenix Mountains lie 8 miles to the north with SquawPeak rising to 2600 feet MSL. The famous landmark of Camelback Mountain lies 6 miles to the north-northeast and rises to 2700 feet MSL. Eighteen miles to the southwest lie the Sierra Estrella Mountains with a maximum elevation of 4500 feet MSL, and 30 miles to the west-northwest are found theWhite Tank Mountains with a maximum elevation of 4100 feet MSL. The Superstition Mountains are approximately 35 miles to the east and rise to 5000 feet MSL.

The central floor of the Salt River Valley is irrigated by water from dams built on the Salt River system. To the north and west of the gravity flow irrigated district, there is considerable agricultural land irrigated by pump water.

There are two separate rainfall seasons. The first occurs during the winter months from November through March when the area is subjected to occasional storms from the Pacific Ocean. While this is classified as a rainfall season, there can be periods of a month or more in this or any other season when practically no precipitation occurs. Snowfall occurs very rarely in the Salt River Valley, while light snows occasionally fall in the higher mountains surrounding the valley. The second rainfall period occurs during July and August when Arizona is subjected to widespread thunderstorm activity whose moisture supply originates in the Gulf of Mexico, in the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Mexico and in the Gulf of California.

The spring and fall months are generally dry, although precipitation in substantial amounts has fallen occasionally during every month of the year.

During the winter months, the temperature is marginal for some types of crops. Areas with milder temperatures around the edges of the valley are utilized by these crops. However, the valley is subjected to occasional killing and hard freezes in which no area escapes damage.

The valley floor, in general, is rather free of strong wind. During the spring months southwest and west winds predominate and are associated with the passage of low-pressure troughs. During the thunderstorm season in July and August, there are often local, strong, gusty winds with con­siderable blowing dust. These winds generally come from a northeasterly to southeasterly direction. Throughout the year there are periods, often several days in length, in which winds remain under 10 miles per hour.

Sunshine in Phoenix area averages 86 percent of possible, ranging from a minimum monthly average of around 78 percent in January and December to a maximum of 94 percent in June. During the winter, skies are sometimes cloudy, but sunny skies predominate and the temperatures are mild. During the spring, skies are also predominately sunny with warm temperatures during the day and mild pleasant evenings. Beginning with June, daytime weather is hot. During July and August, there is an increase in humidity, and there is often considerable afternoon and evening cloudiness associated with cumulus clouds building up over the nearby mountains. Summer thunder­showers seldom occur in the valley before evening.

The autumn season, beginning during the latter part of September, is characterized by sudden changes in temperature. The change from the heat of summer to the mild winter temperatures usually occurs during October. The normal temperature change from the beginning to the end of this month is the greatest of any of the twelve months in central Arizona. By November, the mild winter season is definitely established in the Salt River Valley region.

An Overview of Phoenix Climate

By Harold Bulk, Office of Climatology, Arizona State University

The climate of a location is the synthesis of several elements. The temporal variations of several of these elements is shown in the graph on the following page.

The temperature of the air is probably the element that most people are aware of. Yet air temperature is the result of many other climatic elements. The most important is the receipt of solar energy, for solar energy is the force that drives most of the other climatic elements. The daily amounts of solar energy that are received at the top of the atmosphere (the extra-terrestrial radiation, or ETR) is shown in curve A. The amounts vary from nearly a thousand Langleys (1 Langley = 1 calorie per square centimeter) on the day of the Summer Solstice to about 400 Langleys on the day of the Winter Solstice. Clouds reflect a substantial portion of the solar energy. More is absorbed by water vapor in the air, and even the atmosphere itself will scatter a portion of the solar energy back to space as well as absorb a portion.

Curve C represents the amount of energy that can reach Phoenix on a clear, dry day. (Rosendahl, 1976). It is apparent that only about 70% of the ETR reaches the surface under these conditions. The ten-year average daily receipt of solar energy at Phoenix is shown in curve D.

Some of the energy reaching the earth’s surface is reflected back toward space by the earth itself, some is used to evaporate water, and the remainder warms the air. The large drop in energy receipt during July is directly traceable to the increase in cloudiness (curve E) during this period. (The depletion of solar energy due to clouds is also apparent during the winter months, although less spectacularly so). The continued depression of the averaged receipts of solar energy into August is due to the increased water vapor in the atmosphere (curve F, from Reitan, 1960). The increased water vapor in the atmosphere is due to a shift in the winds from a predom­inantly westerly direction to a southerly direction, the so-called “Arizona Monsoon”. Although the dry bulb temperatures may be depressed during this period, the “sensible temperatures” seem higher due to the increased humidity of the air.

Also shown is the ten-year average daily precipitation at Phoenix (curve G). It is seen that the largest average daily receipts occur in July and August. Rainfall plays a significant role in that a portion of the solar energy reaching the ground is used to evaporate moisture.

Curve B is the average daily temperature at Phoenix. This curve lags the curves for ETR (A), that of clear-day receipts (C), and that for averaged receipts (D). This is due primarily to the thermal lag of the earth. The flattening of the temperature curve during August is due to the energy absorbed by the enhanced rainfall during that time.

Clearly, the daily average temperature at Phoenix is the result of primarily the solar energy reaching the earth’s surface and the precipitation regime.

References

Local Climatological Data, Monthly for Phoenix, Arizona. NOAA, EDIS, Asheville, North Carolina, 1971-1980.

National Weather Service Forecast Office, Phoenix, Arizona. Daily total Horizontal Solar Energy Receipts, 1971-1980.

Reitan, C.H., 1960: “Distribution of Precipitable Water Vapor over the Continental United States”. Bulletin American Meteorological Society, 41, 79-87.

Rosendahl, H. 1976: “Table of daily Values of Maximum Possible Solar Energy, in Solar Radiation and Sunshine Data for the Southwestern U.S.”. R. Durrenberger, Editor, Tempe, Arizona, Laboratory of Climatology.

II. CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY BY MONTHS

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Asu 57 war thunder skin

/october-weather/

/november-weather/

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III. HISTORY OF WEATHER OBSERVATIONS

In the 1800s when communications in the United States were improved by the development of the railroads and telegraph, the practice of predicting weather from purely local signs and the haphazard measuring of meteorological phenomena began to decline. Scientists had noted correlations between the weather in one section of the country on a particular day and that in another section on the succeeding day. It was soon realized that a simul­taneous knowledge of weather conditions all over the country could conceivably enable man to predict storms of major consequences, and that warnings from such predictions could save countless lives and protect property investments. But it was not until the late 1860s that mounting public interest in a national weather service culminated in the signing into law by President Grant on February 9, 1870, of a resolution providing for meteorological observations at all military stations within the United States.

The selection of the U.S. Army Signal Service to take such observations was dictated by the availability of communications facilities which the Signal Service had developed during the Civil War and were continuing to develop for protection against the Indians after the war. The original weather services provided by the military organi­zation covered only the Gulf andAtlantic Coasts and the Great Lakes. Another Act of Congress, on June 10, 1872, extended these services throughout the entire United States.

Weather observations had been taken at many Army posts in Arizona prior to these formalities by Army Post Surgeons. Observations are available from some of these locations today:

StationCountyData Began
Fort DefianceApacheDecember 1, 1851
Camp CrittendenSanta CruzDecember 1856
Fort MohaveMohaveJune 1859
Fort GrantGrahamDecember 1, 1860
Camp GoodwinGrahamAugust 1864
Fort Whipple (Prescott)YavapaiJanuary 1865
Fort McDowellMaricopaSeptember 1, 1866
Camp WallenCochiseNovember 1866
Camp Date CreekYavapaiJanuary 1867
Fort BowieCochiseAugust 1, 1867
Camp Willow GroveMohaveNovember 1867
Camp RenoGilaFebruary 1, 1868
Fort Verde (Camp Verde)YavapaiFebruary 1, 1868
Camp HualapaiYavapaiDecember 1869
Fort YumaYumaJanuary 1, 1870

Observations from these stations were primarily temperature and rainfall. It wasn’t until 1891, when the U.S. Weather Bureau was established, that development of reporting stations proceeded with cautious economy.

The Bureau directed its attention mainly toward establishing a network of field stations. Faced with the growth of public interest, civic pride and the need to provide the best coverage for its forecasting and warning services with limited funds, the Weather Bureau could only slowly grant requests to establish weather stations in a rapidly expanding Nation.

The first Weather Bureau Office to open in Arizona was in Yuma where the duties were transferred from the Army at Fort Yuma in July 1891. Tucson followed in September of that year, and it was not until four years later that the small community of Phoenix rated a full station. Records had been kept in Phoenix by the Signal Service beginning on January 28, 1876, and Signal Service personnel continued to take observations until they transferred the station on the corner of Center and Washington Streets to the Weather Bureau on August 6, 1895.

In 1901 the office was moved to the southwest corner of 1st Avenue and Adams where it remained until it moved into the Federal Building on the southwest corner of 1st Avenue and Van Buren in March 1913. Three years later in June 1916, the office moved to the Water User’s Building on the southeast corner of 2nd Avenue and Van Buren. Raspberry xampp. It remained there until September 1924 when it moved to the Ellis Building at 2nd Avenue and Monroe. On October 21, 1936, it moved to the Federal Building at Central and Fillmore where it stayed until it was closed on october 22, 1953.

Meanwhile, the development of air transportation and teletype communications in the 1920s and 1930s altered and redirected somewhat the purpose of the Weather Bureau as first defined by the law in 1890. This law provided for “the distribution of meteorological information in the interest of agriculture and commerce…” as one of the Weather Bureau’s major functions. “Commerce” now included the mushrooming aviation industry — and in 1940, to meet this partial change in emphasis, the Weather Bureau was transferred from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of Commerce where it remains today. In support of this new means of transportation, another Weather Bureau office was established atSky Harbor Airport on May 2, 1933, and observations were taken there also until July 1935 when Department of Commerce radio operators took over the program. The Weather Bureau returned again to this station in January 1939 and has managed the station ever since that time.

In July 1965 the Weather Bureau was incorporated as an integral part of the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA). In October 1970, the name was changed to the National Weather Service, and it became an integral part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

ELEVATIONS AT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE FORECAST OFFICE
PHOENIX, ARIZONA

LATITUDE 33 deg 26′ North
LONGITUDE 112 deg 01′ West

ELEVATION OF AIRPORT1128 Feet
ELEVATION OF IVORY TIP OF BAROMETER1109.31
ELEVATION OF STATION PRESSURE1107
ELEVATION OF GROUND AT HYGROTHERMOMETER1110
ELEVATION OF GROUND AT WIND VANE AND ANEMOMETER1110
ELEVATION OF CLIMATOLOGICAL STATION1107
ELEVATION OF GROUND AT OFFICE1106
ELEVATION OF HYGROTHERMOMETERAbove Ground, 5
ELEVATION OF WIND VANE AND ANEMOMETERAbove Ground, 33
ELEVATION OF SUNSHINE SWITCHAbove Ground, 7
ELEVATION OF PYRANOMETERAbove Ground, 6
ELEVATION OF RAIN GAGEAbove Ground, 5

Acceleration of Gravity at Phoenix: 979.428 cm/sec2

Boiling Point of Water at Phoenix: 210oF

Temperature Conversion F to C (C = (F-32)*5/9)

Precipitation Conversion I to M (M = I*2.54)

Pressure conversion I to M (insert here)

Asu 57 war thunder helmet

IV. TEMPERATURE

NORMAL MAXIMUM, MINIMUM, AND MEAN BY MONTHS 1961-1990

MonthMAXIMUMMINIMUMMEAN
January65.941.253.6
February70.744.757.7
March75.548.862.2
April84.555.369.9
May93.663.978.8
June103.572.988.2
July105.981.093.5
August103.779.291.5
September98.372.885.6
October88.160.874.5
November74.948.961.9
December66.241.854.1
Annual85.959.372.6

NORMAL MAXIMUM, MINIMUM, AND MEAN BY MONTHS 1971-2000

MonthMAXIMUMMINIMUMMEAN
January67.344.856.1
February71.448.459.9
March76.153.064.5
April84.757.671.1
May93.967.480.6
June103.975.689.8
July106.682.994.7
August104.581.693.0
September99.075.687.3
October87.762.174.9
November75.050.462.7
December67.143.955.5
Annual86.461.974.2

HIGHEST MEAN AND LOWEST MEAN BY MONTHS AND YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1896-2007

MonthHIGHESTYEARLOWESTYEAR
January62.0200343.21937
February66.0199148.61939
March72.3200454.31897
April80.1198962.41967
May87.0198469.01917
June94.6200679.01965
July97.7200385.41912
August96.2200784.61918
September92.2200178.91900, 1912
October82.7200366.21916
November70.0200755.01922
December61.3198046.61911
Annual77.0198967.81964

HIGHEST AND LOWEST MEAN MAXIMUM AND HIGHEST AND LOWEST MEAN MINIMUM
BY MONTHS AND YEAR OF OCCURRENCE – 1896-2008

MEAN MAXIMUM MEAN MINIMUM HIGHESTYEARLOWESTYEAR HIGHESTYEARLOWESTYEAR

January74.6200353.5194949.8199331.91937
February78.7199160.5193953.2199133.41964
March86.7197267.31897
1958
59.5200440.31917
April94.2198975.1190065.9198947.51967
May101.2198483.7191773.7199754.21917
June108.6197496.0196781.8200660.61965
July109.8198997.7191286.6200373.11912
1913
August107.3196297.0195586.1200771.31900
September104.6200193.6190080.6198363.61912
1965
October95.8195280.7191970.8200350.81923
November82.3194967.4200058.3200737.31916
December74.9198059.2190948.21977
1991
32.61916
Annual89.8198981.4191364.9200353.11917

Greatest number of consecutive months with average temperature below normal:

13 Months from May 1916 through May 1917

Greatest number of consecutive months with average temperature above normal:

38 Months from January 1988 through February 1991

HIGHEST MAXIMUM AND LOWEST MINIMUM
BY MONTHS AND DAY AND YEAR OF OCCURRENCE
1896-2008

HIGHESTLOWEST
MAXIMUMDAYYEARMINIMUMDAYYEAR
January881919711671913
February9225
27
1921
1986
247
8
1899
1933
March1002619882541966
April10520
29
1989
1992
35101922
May1143019103931899
June1222619904941908
July121281995634
5
1912
1912
August1161
4
1972
1975
58201917
September116119504722
20
21
1895
1965
1965
October1071
2
1980
1980
34301971
November961
2
1924
1924
27231931
December871019502231
26
1900
1911
Annual122JUN 26199016JAN 71913

Temperature

LOWEST MAXIMUM AND HIGHEST MINIMUM
BY MONTHS AND DAY AND YEAR OF OCCURRENCE
1896-2008

LOWESTHIGHEST
MAXIMUMDAYYEARMINIMUMDAYYEAR
January396
21
1913
1937
61271988
February466
8
1899
1903
65211996
March492191574281986
April521194977271987
May541191586291983
June682189993271990
July791191196152003
August7327195195122003
September66231895903
31
1982
19832007
October563019598321997
November402819197342001
December361018986531986
Annual36DEC 10189893JUN 27
JUL 20
1990
1989

GREATEST AND LEAST MONTHLY TEMPERATURE RANGE
BY MONTHS AND YEAR OF OCCURRENCE
1896-1995

GREATESTLEAST
RANGEYEARRANGEYEAR
January691971331995
February611921311993
March671966351980
April621949441931
May661910401981
June631929381986
July501905331959
1981
August511918
1962
311955
September581945351981
October661917331983
November671931381986
December581911351992
Annual961990771984
1991
1992

HOTTEST AND COOLEST SUMMERS 1896-1995
(June, July, August, and September Combination)

HOTTESTYearCOOLESTYear
93.4198184.11912
93.3198984.21913
92.7198884.41923
92.1199484.61965
92.0197785.11964
HOTTEST THREE
SUCCESSIVE MONTHS
HOTTEST TWO
SUCCESSIVE MONTHS
Temp(Combination)Temp(Combination)
94.8June, July, August 198195.6July, August 1989
94.4June, July, August 198895.5July, August 1981
94.4June, July, August 198995.1July, August 1988
93.9June, July, August 198594.8July, August 1991
93.8June, July, August 199494.7July, August 1985
93.5June, July, August 197794.6July, August 1977
93.2June, July, August 198694.6
94.6
94.6
July, August 1994
July August 1995
July, August 1995

HOTTEST MONTH

TemperatureMonthYear
97.4July1989
96.2July1988
95.8August1981
95.6July1980
95.5July1983
95.3August1994

WARMEST AND COLDEST WINTERS 1896-FEBRUARY 1995
(December, January, February Combination)

WARMESTYearCOLDESTYear
60.61980-198149.31963-1964
59.41985-198649.81948-1949
58.61991-199250.01916-1917
58.51990-199152.21945-1946
COLDEST TWO
SUCCESSIVE MONTHS
COLDEST MONTH
48.0January, February196443.2January 1937
48.2December, January1936-193744.6January 1949
48.3December, January1948-194946.6December 1911
48.4December, January1931-193247.0January 1932
48.7January, February194947.1December 1916

RECORD HIGH DEW POINTS IN DEGREES AND DATES OF OCCURRENCE
1896-1995

HIGHEST HOURLY DEW POINTS

Dew Point (F)MonthDayYear
79July191957
78August91977
78August201978
77August11951
76July101899
76August101913
76August41943
76July311945
76July171953
76July221966
76August191966

HIGHEST DAILY AVERAGE DEW POINTS

Dew Point (F)MonthDayYear
74August41943
73August191966

HIGHEST MONTHLY AVERAGE DEW POINTS

War Thunder Skins

Asu
Dew Point (F)MonthYear
68August1955
67August1943

RECORD LOW DEW POINTS IN DEGREES AND DATES OF OCCURRENCE

1896-June 1995

LOWEST HOURLY DEW POINTS

Dew Point (F)MonthDayYear
-23November281976
-22December211977
-15January291970
-14February21972
-13Februrary31972
-13April131974
-12March101977
-11February41972

LOWEST DAILY AVERAGE DEW POINTS

Dew Point (F)MonthDayYear
-10December211977
-5February31972

LOWEST MONTHLY AVERAGE DEW POINTS

Dew Point (F)MonthYear
20February1972
21March1977

RECORD LOW HOURLY HUMIDITIES IN PERCENT AND DATES OF OCCURRENCE

1896-June 1995

War thunder store
Relative Humidity (%)MonthDayYear
2May81904
2May161907
2May131976
2December211977
2April211979
2June41982

HEAT INDEX
(Apparent Temperature)

Most people are familiar with the term “wind-chill factor” which gives the combined effects of wind and temperature as an equivalent calm air temperature. For example, if the temperature is 0_F and the wind is 5 mph, the wind-chill factor is -5_F; at 10 mph, it is -22_F; and at 20 mph it is -39_F. Just as an increase in wind makes the cold air more unbearable, so does an increase in the moisture content of the air make the high summer temperatures more uncomfortable.

In most sections of the country, people look forward to summer. In the desert southwest, however, summer is the most undesirable time of the year. The term “Heat Index” is an apparent temperature based on the actual temperature and the amount of moisture in the air. The Heat Index Graph, devised by the National Weather Service, uses temperature and humidity values to determine the heat index. The areas of the graph are labeled: very warm, hot, very hot, and extremely hot. Most of the typical sunny summer days in the high country of Arizona fall into the very warm category. At the 5000-foot level, they fall into the hot, and in the lower deserts, they are in the very hot area of the graph. The chart also gives the heat syndrome for each classification.

The dew point, or the temperature to which the air must be cooled before condensation can take place, gives a true value of now much moisture is actually in the air. By knowing the temperature and dew point, the humidity can be determined. Using the temperature and humidity, the heat index can be arrived at by using the graph.

The prolonged summer head with maximum temperatures generally between 105 and 110 degrees in the Phoenix area causes some degree of fatigue in most people. Exhaustion and even heatstroke and sunstroke are possible with prolonged outdoor activity. This is especially true during much of July and August when the atmosphere becomes laden with tropical moisture.

Phoenix records were checked back to 1896 to find the highest humidity ever for each temperature from 100 through 118 degrees.

TEMPERATUREDEW POINTHUMIDITYHEAT INDEX
1007545112
1017443112
1026935110
1036934110
1046832111
1056932113
1066729112
1076627112
1086828116
1096626116
1106222113
1116322116
1125918113
1135918115
1145716114
1155615115
1165615117
1175614117
1185614118

It is interesting to note that with high moisture content, with humidities in the 30% and 40% range, the temperature never reached over 105 degrees. It is only with very dry air that temperatures climbed over 112 degrees. This is nature’s way of not allowing conditions to get entirely out of hand.

THE MYTH OF INCREASING MOISTURE LEVELS IN PHOENIX

By Robert C. Balling, Jr., and Sandra W. Brazel
Office of Climatology, Arizona State University

Is Phoenix becoming more humid? Many local residents believe that irrigated landscaping, swimming pools, and lakes and canals in new housing developments around the city are forcing moisture levels noticeably upward. However, many scientists have shown that cities usually act to decrease moisture levels in the atmosphere. This is caused by (a) paved surfaces that store little moisture and force rapid runoff following a rain event and (b) increased temperature in the “urban heat island”.

Despite local interest in atmosphere moisture trends in the valley, surprisingly little scientific research has directly addressed this issue.

We decided to examine the Phoenix, Arizona, weather records from 1896-1984 to see if there has been a change in the humidity of the Phoenix urban area. We chose relative humidity and dew point temperatures for statistical analysis. The dew point temperature is a better indicator of the amount of moisture in the air, which is the major contributor to human discomfort.

Since Arizona has a distinct two season rainfall pattern (a monsoon season, July through September and a winter season, December through April), we chose the months of May, June, October, and November for analysis. These transition months should be the least affected by large-scale weather disturbances since they are in between the precipitation seasons. Thus any urban effect on humidity should be clearly evident.

We chose six different relatively sophisticated statistical techniques to analyze the time series patterns in the atmospheric moisture data. These techniques basically search for “climatic signals” that may be contained in the “noisy” variance patterns in our data. These statistical procedures allow us to make conclusions regarding any trends, cycles, or discontinuities in the moisture records.

Asu 57 War Thunder

The results for the dew points were somewhat surprising. In May, October, and November, our statistical procedures indicated that the variations in the data were random; however, some form of non-random variation appeared to exist in the June dew points. Our analyses showed that trend was not the source of non-random inter-annual variation in June (or any other month). The systematic variations in June were found to be related in several significant cycles in the data. One cycle showed a maximum occurring in 1943, and a minimum 1898. This important cycle shows that we are presently heading towards another minimum projected for 1987. Another cyclical pattern showed maxima in 1917 and 1962, and minima in 1939 and 1984. Clearly dew points are not rising in Phoenix.

Given the steady or falling dew points, and assuming the highly probable occurrence of some urban heat island effects (higher temperatures in the city), the relative humidity values should display decreasing levels, again contrary to popular opinion. All of our statistics from each month indicated a strong downward trend in the relative humidity levels. The levels display a peak in the 1920s and a pronounced minimum in the 1970s and 1980s. So we have concluded that while increases in irrigated and sprinkled areas and open water surfaces may have occurred in the growing Phoenix area, many other effects of urbanization have apparently produced an overriding, counteracting impact on the atmospheric moisture levels.

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE and RELATIVE HUMIDITY BY FIVE-YEAR PERIODS
1896-1995

5-Year IntervalTemperatureRelative Humidity
1896-190069.838
1901-190570.139
1906-191069.744
1911-191568.944
1916-192068.948
1921-192570.244
1926-193070.941
1931-193571.840
1956-196071.340
1936-194071.947
1941-194570.541
1946-195071.343
1951-195571.041
1961-196569.638
1966-197070.740
1971-197571.835
1976-198073.546
1981-198574.339
1986-199075.834
1991-199574.637

These values of relative humidity are averages of the five years. The yearly averages are based on the averages of the twelve months. The monthly averages are based on daily values taken at 5 a.m. and 5 p.m.

These data also show high values in the 1910s and 1920s and low values in the 1970s and 1980s. This is in good agreement with the above research project.

It again points out that with urbanization, more buildings of all kinds, more paved surfaces and the heat island effect, the relative humidity decreases.