Anthropology Midterm

Anthropology 101, Midterm 1. Anthropology 101. Undergraduate 2. Anthropology offers a maximalist view. Jaylan Shaw February 9, 2021 Anthropology 3 Anthropology Midterm Questions: 1. By definition cultural adaptation refers to the process of time it takes a person to assimilate to a new culture. As described during week two lecture the process of cultural adaptation comes in many forms and transitions over time.

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Anthropology Midterm Exam

Term
What are anthropology's sub-disciplines?
Definition
Cultural, archaeology, physical/biological, linguistic, and +1 applied
Term
Anthropology
Definition
The comparative study of human society and culture
Term
Cultural Anthropology
Definition
How culture is learned and used, how culture persists and changes, similarity and difference across culture, study of dynamics of particular cultures as a way to better understand humanity across time and space
Term
Archaeology
Definition
Study of the past through material remains, reconstruct human behavior using material remains, explanation and analysis of historical and prehistorical societies
Term
Physical/Biological Anthropology
Definition
Focus on the biocultural evolution of humans, human ancestors, relatives of humans, and how they bioculturally adapt to different environments and challenges, also studies human relatives
Term
Linguistic Anthropology
Definition
Study of languages past and present, study of how people us language in verbal and non-vebral ways, study of how languages vary in a society and across time, study how languages evolves/spread/become extinct
Term
Ethnocentrism
Definition
Using one's own society to judge and analyze other (prejudice)
Term
Holism
Definition
Combining human biology, history, and shared patterns of human behavior to make assumptions
Term
Edward Tylor
Definition
Theory of unilinear evolution, stating that societies moved in a linear motion from primitivism to savagery to civilization, we must all pass through those stages
Term
L. Henry Morgan
Definition
Simple to complex stages of development, agreed with Tylor's unilinear evolution theories
Term
Bronislaw Malinowski and A. R. Radcliffe Brown
Definition
Believed in functionalism, culture consists of parts that serve a function or a whole, focused on what people of a culture share in common (not concerned with history or change) interested in objective realism and kinship
Term
Franz Boaz
Definition
Historical particularism, believed that focus on history, details, inductive reasoning and argued for focus on specificity of cultures (ethnography)
Term
Claude Levi-Strauss
Definition
Structuralism, believed in focus oon deep knowledge/grammar, focus on universals (binary oppositions)
Term
Leslie White, Julian Steward, Marvin Harris
Definition
Neoevolutionism, believed in multilinear evolution, reworking of simple to complex ideas, removed prejudices, used ethnology and ethnography to reformulate old ideas, categorized culture area and types, specified influence of local environment on culture
Term
Imperial Anthropologists/First Field Workers
Definition
Franz Boaz and Bronislaw Malinowski
Term
Field Work
Definition
Select a problem or issue, find a location, develop key contacts, record all date over period of time
Term
Julian Steward
Definition
Cultural ecology, ecological functionalism, believed where an area is located determines how their economics function and what they produce
Term
Morton Fried
Definition
Three types of political organization model (egalitarian, rank, and state-stratified)
Term
Elman Service
Definition
Four types of political organization model (bands, tribes, chiefdoms, states)
Term
Diffusion Theory
Definition
Theory of how ideas and technology spread through culture
Term
3 Types of Resources
Definition
Tangible, human, and symbolic
Term
Political Universals
Definition
Public goods, self-serving, common good, basic problems
Term
Universals of Anthropology
Definition
All people form families and structure their relationships, communicate, dance, rituals, family
Term
Particulars of Anthropology
Definition
People have developed different ways of forming families and structuring relationships and culture
Term
Patrilocal/Matrilocal
Definition
Living with your mother or father's family on their land after you are married
Term
Neolocal
Definition
Living on your own after you are married
Term
Patrilineal/Matrilineal
Definition
Tracing your mother or father's line of descent
Term
Emic
Definition
Insider's point of view
Term
Etic
Definition
Outsider's perspective
Term
Ethnography
Definition
Detailed work of data from the field
Term
Reflexivity
Definition
Greater awareness of how we relate to and interact with other people and how we represent them
Term
Inductive/Deductive Reasoning
Definition
Deductive goes from generic to specific, inductive goes from specific to generic
Term
Dualistic Conceptual Continuum
Definition
Scale on which materialism/objectivism are on the left, culture is in the middle, and idealism/subjectivism are on the left
Term
6 Things About Culture
Definition
Culture is learned, culture depends upon language and symbols, culture is integrated, culture is shared, culture is adaptive, and culture changes
Term
Ways Culture is Shared
Definition
Migration, trade, war, conquest, inter-marriage, exploration
Term
Postmodern Turn
Definition
Peak of modernism, allowed no single superior vantage point in anthropology
Term
Positivism
Definition
The need to avoid biases/tainted research in the field and the beginning of long-term study
Term
Native Anthropology
Definition
A flux of colored people entering the field, allowed the benefits of studying those who are similar to you
Term
Feminist Turn
Definition
Flux of women in the field (now 60%), allowed women's roles in societies to be published, child rearing, etc.
Term
Linear Research Model
Definition
Similar to the scientific method of study
Term
Ethnographic Research Cycle
Definition
Circular research cycle, select a problem or issue, find a location, develop key contacts, collect data, study literature, develop questions, interpret results
Term
Formal Economics
Definition
Reflection of our own culture, understood as an isolated domain
Term
Substantive Economics
Definition
All peoples have unlimited wants but limited needs, decisions must be made to maximize the economy for specific cultures
Term
Artic
Definition
Snow and ice covered, permeable, life limited
Term
Desert
Definition
Various and limited flora and fauna, waterless zones, able to support life with irrigation
Term
Savannas/Plains
Definition
Flat, open spaces not suitable for cultivation due to weather unpredictability
Term
Tropics
Definition
Warm, shady areas, large ecosystems, dry wetlands have rich soil, wet tropics have depleted soil and uncontrollable vegetation
Term
Woodlands/Temperate
Definition
Most hospitable for human life, variable ecosystems, fresh water, fertile soil
Term
Mountainous
Definition
Vary in plant and animal life, challenge to keep soil from washing away
Term
Subsistence Strategies
Definition
Foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, industrialism
Term
Foraging
Definition
Adaptive strategy for nomadic peoples, low population density (6-8 MYA)
Term
Horticulture/Swidden Agriculture
Definition
Slash and burn techniques, alternative fields, semi-permanent lifestyles, tropical climates, human power only
Term
Pastoralism
Definition
Transhumance and nomadism
Term
Agriculture
Definition
Intensive agriculture uses domesticated animals/machine technology, promotes sedimentary living, population growth (10-12 KYA)
Term
Industrialism
Definition
Use of machines and not hmans for production, changes how humans related to their physical environment and each other (poverty, distribution by trade, and capitalism introduced) (300 YA)
Term
Maximalism v. Minimalism
Definition
Anthropology offers a maximalist view of politics, political scientists and economists offer a minimalistic approach
Term
Theoretical Frameworks of Political Anthropology
Definition
Struture-functionalism, process/processual, political evolution, political economy, and postmodern
Term
Structure-functionalism
Definition
From the 1950s-60s, focus on function and maintenance of politics and economics in society (focus on individual)
Term
Process/Processual
Definition
Focused on how individuals plan and achieve goals
Term
Political Evolution
Definition
Relationship between politics and economics relationship to each other through history on society
Term
Postmodern
Definition
Began to challenge established views of experts said to be 'truth', says all narratives must be evaluated
Term
Leader's Needs
Definition
Followers, benefactors, loyalists
Term
Followers
Definition
Bedrock of leadership, not close to leaders, leaders focus on balancing alienating versus appeasing followers
Term
Benefactors
Definition
Provide tangible resources to keep followers happy, leaders obligated to appease benefactors, benefactors in turn are closer to leaders
Term
Loyalists
Definition
Enduring support for leader out of moral commitment, don't need resources as much as followers do
Term
Types of Leaders
Definition
Episodic, village leaders, Big Men, chieftains, shamans, kings, politicians (status leaders or office holdres)
Term
Morton Fried's Three Types
Definition
Egalitarian, Rank, State-Stratified
Term
Egalitarian
Definition
Consists of bands and tribes, mode of production is foraging or Swidden slash and burn methods, bilateral, nomadic, flexible membership, low population density, and osogmous
Term
Rank
Definition
Consists of tribes and chiefdoms, mixed strategies of production, stratified, redistribution, low violence, and complex
Term
State-Stratified
Definition
Consists of governments and bureaucracy, mode of production is intensive agriculture and industrialism, hierarchal, monoply on violence, heterogenous
Term
Elman Service's Four Types
Definition
Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States
Term
Challenges All Leaders Face
Definition
Building and maintaining support
Term
Dimensions of Stratification
Definition
Wealth, social class, power, status, social mobility, and ideology
Term
Functionalist Focus
Definition
How do societies function together and how do they not fall apart?
Term
Davis and Moore Thesis
Definition
Argues that stratification serves positive purposes, stratification rewards people with money and prestige and allocated people to positions with functional significance, believed full equality would lead to someone who does a poor job to get rewarded at the same rate as someone who does an outstanding job (capitalism)
Term
Karl Marx and Fredrick Ingles
Definition
Conflict focus, stratification is a problem, result from peoples different access to resources, only intensified by capitalism
Term
Max Vabor
Definition
Stratification is neither bad or good, about competition revolving around people competing on income/prestige/power/space
Term
Stratified Society
Definition
Permanent social and economic inequality, people can be denied access to basic resources needed to survive, societies have not always been stratified
Term
Ascribed vs. Achieved
Definition
If you are scribed, you are born into a social condition, if it is achieved, your efforts earn you your social state
Term
Ideology
Definition
Strongy held cultural belief with moral and political implications (central to stratification), people need explanations of why things are the way they are
Term
Dominant vs. Subversive
Definition
Dominant is used to maintain, rationalize and naturalize an existing order while subversive is used to challenge dominant ideologies by providing a counter prospective on a dominant ideology
Term
Engaged Anthropology
Definition
Anthropology that includes political action as a major goal of field work
Term
Collaborative Anthropology
Definition
Ethnography that gives priority to informants o the topic, methodology, and written results of research

Anthropology Midterm Exam Quizlet

    • 1. Biological (physical) anthropology
    • 2. Socio-cultural anthropology
    • 3. Linguistic anthropology
    • 4. Archaeology
  1. Observations of living primates inform our efforts to understand ourevolutionary past.
    True or False
  2. A) the study of the behavior and material culture of past human societies.
  3. C) relies on the scientific method.
  4. D) involves empirical data collection and hypothesis testing.
  5. A) is an attempt to explain observations and predict future scientific results.
  6. Forensic anthropology differs from biocultural anthropology in which of thefollowing ways?
    A) applies anthropological techniques to modern crime scenes and disasters
  7. How is biocultural anthropology different from cultural anthropology?
    B) It examines the interaction between genetics and culture in shaping human biology.
  8. Bipedalism is considered one of the hallmarks of hominid evolution because:
    D) it was the first evolutionary development that clearlydistinguished us from other animals.
  9. A) A theory is an explanation relying on careful examination and testing of evidence.
  10. united within American anthropology the study of culture, language, and biology.
  11. A) an English naturalist who arrived at many of the same conclusions as Darwin.
  12. D) developed a classification system for plants and animals.
  13. The English demographer whose work on population growth greatly influenced Darwin’s thinking was:
  14. Different versions, or subunits, of the same gene are:
  15. The only possible source of new genetic material is:
  16. Recessive alleles for a given trait will be expressed if they are inherited:
  17. The scientist who coined the nameHomo sapiensfor human beings and placed them in a higher taxonomicgroup he called primates was:
  18. The scientist whose work provided the foundation for later understandings of genetics was:
  19. DNA replication takes place only during the production of new gametes.
    A) True
    B) False
  20. Somatic cells include all of the following EXCEPT:
  21. A) adenine and thymine.
  22. B) haploid.
  23. A) four gametes.
  24. B) is determined by genes at several loci in conjunction with environmental factors
  25. B) meiosis.
  26. 'Fitness,' in an evolutionary sense, refers to an individual’s:
  27. The substitution of one DNA base for another due to a mistake during replication is called a:
  28. A) a primitive mammalian trait, retained in most,primates.
  29. D) Madagascar.
  30. C) lemurs
  31. A) prosimians and anthropoids.
  32. All of the anthropoids live in social groups EXCEPT:
  33. A) applies anthropological techniques to modern crimescenes and disasters.
  34. Mutation is the only source of new genetic material.
    A) True
    B) False
  35. Gene flow increases the number of genetic differences between populations.
    A) True
    B) False
  36. A) developed a classification system for plants and animals.
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Anthropology 101 Midterm
Midterm