A36 War Thunder

#warthunder #livewt #workshop A-36. The North American A-36 Apache (listed in some sources as 'Invader', but also called Mustang) was the ground-attack / dive bomber version of the North American P-51 Mustang, from which it could be distinguished by the presence of rectangular, slatted dive brakes above and below the wings.

Tank, Heavy Assault, Tortoise (A39)
TypeAssault Tank
Place of originUnited Kingdom
Production history
Designed1944
ManufacturerNuffield
Produced1945-1947
No. built6
Specifications
Mass78 long tons (79 t)
Length33 ft (10 m)
Hull: 23 ft 7 in (7.2 m)
Width13 ft (3.9 m)
Height9 ft 10 in (3 m)
Crew7 (Commander, gunner, machine gunner, 2 loaders, driver, co-driver)
Armour178–228 mm (7–9 in)
33 mm (1.3 in) top
Ordnance QF 32 pounder
(94 mm gun)
Secondary
armament
3 × 7.92 mm Besa machine guns
EngineRolls-Royce Meteor V12 petrol
650 bhp (480 kW)
Power/weight7.7 hp/tonne
Transmission6 speeds forward and reverse
Suspensiontorsion bar
Road: 87 mi (140 km)
Maximum speed Road: 12 mph (19 km/h)
Off-road: 4 mph (6 km/h)

The Tortoise heavy assault tank (A39) was a British heavy assault gun design developed during the Second World War, but never put into mass production. Utc summer time. It was developed for the task of clearing heavily fortified areas such as the Siegfried Line and as a result favoured armour protection over mobility.

Although heavy, at 78 tons, and not readily transported, it was considered reliable and a good gun platform.[1]

Only a few prototypes of the Tortoise had been produced by the end of the war.

Development[edit]

The A39 Tortoise being towed on an 80-ton trailer by two Diamond T's during trials in BAOR, 1948
Thunder

In the early part of 1943, the Allied forces anticipated considerable resistance in the projected future invasion of Europe, with the enemy fighting from heavily fortified positions such as the Siegfried Line. As a result, a new class of vehicles emerged, in the shape of assault tanks, which placed maximum armour protection at a higher priority than mobility. Initially, work was concentrated on the Excelsior tank (A33), based on the Cromwell tank. There was also a programme to upgrade the armour of the Churchill tank. For similar work in the Far East, the Valiant tank (A38), based on the Valentine tank was considered, although weight was specified to be as low as possible.

The Secretary of State for War and the Minister of Supply issued a Joint Memorandum in April 1943 that gave a vague specification for an assault tank, classing it as a special purpose vehicle to operate in heavily defended areas as part of the specialist 79th Armoured Division.

The Nuffield Organization responded with 18 separate designs (AT1 through AT18) drafted between May 1943 and February 1944, each design larger and heavier than the last. By February 1944, design AT16 was complete and was approved by the Tank Board, who proposed that month that 25 should be produced directly from the mockup stage without bothering with a prototype, to be available for operational service in September 1945. An order for 25 was placed by the War Office and work was begun.

Following the end of the war the order was reduced and only six vehicles were built. One example was sent to Germany for trials, where it was found to be mechanically reliable and a powerful and accurate gun platform. However, at a weight of 80 tons and a height of 10 feet (3.0 m) it was extremely slow and proved difficult to transport.

Description[edit]

A36 War Thunder Tank

The primary requirement for an assault tank is armour, to enable the tank to assault a heavily emplaced enemy. This led to Tortoise having very thick armour, arranged as a one piece casemate to avoid the weak spots of a turret design. This differs from the design of other wartime era assault tanks, the Excelsior tank and Assault Tank T14.

Since the Tortoise had a fixed casemate superstructure instead of a turret, it can be classified as a self-propelled gun or an assault gun and not a tank. The crew included a commander, driver, and gunner, with two loaders for the 32-pounder gun and two machine gunners.

Internally, it was split into three compartments: the transmission to the front, the crew in the centre and the Rolls-Royce Meteor engine at the rear. The suspension consisted of four bogies on each side of the hull. Each bogie had two pairs of wheels, with each pair linked to a transverse torsion bar. The Merritt-Brown transmission was fitted with an all speed reverse, giving approximately the same speed backwards as forwards.

Armament[edit]

The Ordnance QF 32 pounder gun design was adapted from the British 3.7 inch anti-aircraft gun. The ammunition used a separate charge and shell, the latter a 32-pound (14.5 kg) armour piercing shot (APCBC). In tests, the gun was successful against a German Panther tank at nearly 1,000 yards.

The 32-pdr gun was mounted in a power-assisted limited traverse mounting; rather than being mounted on the more traditional trunnions, it protruded through a large ball mount in the front of the hull, protected by 225 mm armour. To the left of it was a Besa machine gun in an armoured ball mount. A further two Besa machine guns were mounted in a turret on the top of the hull to the right.

Surviving prototypes[edit]

The Tortoise at The Tank Museum (2008)
  • One of the six prototype Tortoises constructed of mild steel[i] has been preserved at The Tank Museum in Bovington, England. The vehicle is in running condition. A 2011 overhaul saw it running under its own power for the first time since the 1950s.[2] It was shown to the public in June 2011 at Tankfest 2011, the Bovington museum's annual display of running vehicles.
  • A Tortoise, without its gun, lies on the Kirkcudbright military training area near Kirkcudbright, Scotland.[3] Other damage to the tank and the designation of the Kirkcudbright training area as a Site of Special Scientific Interest mean that removal of the Tortoise to a museum is unlikely.
  • Another Tortoise was used as a target on Lulworth Ranges, Dorset in the early 1970s. By August 1974 it was little more than a shell.

See also[edit]

  • Other assault tanks:
  • T28 Super Heavy Tank - A comparable US project, few prototypes built.
  • Jagdtiger - A comparable German project, produced in limited numbers.
  • Object 704 - A similar Soviet vehicle. It was a variant of the existing ISU 152 assault gun, but with added armour. One prototype was built.
  • SU-100Y - another Soviet SPG that deals against enemy fortifications and heavy-armored tanks

References[edit]

  1. ^Note; it is normal for armoured vehicle prototypes to be built using mild steel instead of armour plate. Besides being cheaper to produce, mild steel is also readily available and easier to work.


A36
  1. ^Fletcher, David (1989). Universal Tank: British Armour in the Second World War - Part 2. HMSO. p. 90. ISBN0-11-290534-X.
  2. ^The Tank Museum (27 May 2011), Tortoise to Run for First Time in 60 Years, archived from the original on 22 February 2015CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  3. ^'Kirkcudbright Training Area'. Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments in Scotland. Retrieved 5 July 2011.

Sources[edit]

  • Foss, Christopher F. (2002). The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles. Spellmount. ISBN1-86227-188-7.
  • Chamberlain, Peter; Chris Ellis (2000). British and American Tanks of World War Two: The Complete Illustrated History of British, American and Commonwealth Tanks, 1939-45. Cassell. ISBN0-304-35529-1.
  • Chamberlain, Peter; Chris Ellis (2002). Tanks of the World 1915-1945. Cassell Military. ISBN0-304-36141-0.
  • Forty, George (2006). The Illustrated Guide to Tanks of the World. Hermes House. ISBN0-681-45905-0.

A36 War Thunder

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tortoise tank.
  • Armor in Focus - A39 Tortoise Heavy Assault Tank Specifications, Pictures
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Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tortoise_heavy_assault_tank&oldid=1020805683'
P-51 Variants
VariantsXP-51sRAFA-36P-51AP-51BP-51CP-51DP-51KP-51HCA-17/18CavalierRacersSources
The A-36

April 1942 marked the first order of any P-51 variant by the US Army. 500 NA-97s were ordered. The U.S. serials were 42-83663 to 42-84162. The P-51 was never intended to be a dive bomber. Budgets for pursuit fighters were limited at that time, but there were funds available for dive bombers. NAA's President, Dutch Kindelberger, made proposals for a quick design modification to the P-51 and landed a contract for 500.
The name of the A-36: It is hard, if not impossible to find reference the names given to the A-36 that have been published many times. It is mostly published that the official USAAF name is 'Apache', but some P-51 historians refute this saying there are no documents that support that name. It was also called 'Invader' and later mostly just 'Mustang'. I have found reference to the name 'Invader' in an official USAAF film about the A-36 and one of the units that used it in Italy.

The design was very similar to the Mustang I and P-51A. The powerplant was the Allison V-1710-87. The A-36 was a dive-bomber so the addition of hard points for two 500 lb bombs and dive brakes to slow the fast acceleration of the P-51 in a dive were added. The belly scoop was now fixed at the front. Armament was 2 guns in the nose and 4 in the wings, all .50 caliber.
The dive brakes were operated hydraulically and located on the top and bottom of each wing outboard of the guns. Plan was that they limit the dive speed to 250 mph but in practice the speeds were closer to 350 mph and higher. The angle of dive was reduced to 70 degrees because of high stress during pull-out.
The hard points for the bombs were also capable of holding 75 gallon drop tanks for extended range. The top speed of the A-36 was down from added weight to about 358 mph at 5,000 feet (without external stores).

Only one A-36 was sent to the RAF for evaluation as A-36 EW998 in March 1943. The US used the A-36 in the Mediterranean theatre with first deliveries beginning in early 1943. When not in the ground attack role, the A-36 was essentially a low-altitude P-51A and was used as a fighter. The A-36 scored 101 air-air victories during WWII.
The A-36 proved to be a very stable platform for accurate weapons delivery. 177 were lost in action mostly due to the dangerous mission of low-level operations.

P400 Fighter

Specifications
Model - A-36
Production - 500
Length - 32.25
Height - 12.2
Wingspan - 37.04
Weight - empty - 6087
Weight - normal T.O. - 8600
Weight - max G.W. - 10,700
Powerplant - Allison V-1710-87
Horsepower - 1325
Propeller - Curtiss 3-bladed electric 10'9'
Max Speed - 356 @ 5k
Service Ceiling - 25,100
Fuel Capacity - 180
Drop Tanks - 2x 75 gal
Range - 750 / 1375+
Guns - 6x .50 cal
Bomb / Rockets - 2x 500 lb bombs